I'm stretching back a bit to when I was writing my bachelor's degree thesis in the mid-1980s, but my recollection was that Greek number theory held the following: 1= God, 2= man, 3= woman, 4= justice, 5= humankind. All of the perfect and major intervals (or at least the consonant intervals) in the Pythagorean tuning systems are based upon the various proportions of these numbers (e.g. 2:1 = an octave). The architects of the great European cathedrals used these same proportions in their designs and many music directors at the cathedrals used the proportions of the specific cathedral to integrate into their compositions, either in terms of frequency of intervals, number of "movements", lengths of phrases, repetitions/variations on themes, etc. There was a wonderful book published in the '80s called "The Pythagorean Plato" which goes into a fair amount of this. Unfortunately, my music theory for non-Western/non-European music is weak, so I'd have to dig for mathematical/musical connections in other musics.
Interestingly, in the seven liberal arts, the first three traditionally studied were those relating to spoken language (grammar, dialectic, rhetoric), this was followed by the four "mathematical" arts (arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy).