1 Practical Right Knowledge is the acquisition of the detailed knowledge of all the seven principles explained above, with the help of the Jaina scriptures. This Right-knowledge must be free from three main defect (a) doubt (Samashay), (b) Perversity (Viparyaya) and (c) Indefiniteness (anadhyavasaya). It reveals the complete and precise nature of things.
2 Real Right knowledge is to know the true and real nature of the soul as quite distinct from all other non-soul substances.
Constant contemplation of, and unflinching devotion to, the subject matter of practical right knowledge is an auxiliary cause to the attainment of Real Right Knowledge.
A right believer, who has fully realised the true and real nature of his own soul, and is bent upon getting rid of the karmic filth, which is in bondage with his soul, tries to follow Right Conduct. His main object in doing so is to be free from attachment and aversion, and from all impure thought-activities and to attain the condition of equanimity.
Practical right conduct consists in observing the following five vows: -
(a)Ahinsa (refraining from doing injury)
(b)Satya (refraining from falsehood.)
(c)Asteya (refraining from theft.)
(d)Brahmacharya (Chastity, purity.)
(e)Aparigraha (Non-attachment.) This practical right conduct can be observed either partially or fully. Laymen observe it partially, while those who observe it fully are saints. Partial observance is merely a stepping stone to the conduct of a saint, without following which it is not possible to advance spiritually and to ultimately liberate the soul from karmic bondage.
A layman is required to follow the seven supplementary vows also, as they are helpful in the proper observance of the first five.
Out of these seven, the following three are called Gunavratas (miltiplicative vows) because they raise the value of the five vows multifold.
Dig-Vrata, a life-long vow to limit worldly activities to fixed points in all the 10 direction, North South, East, West, North-east, North-west, South-east, South-west. Above and below.
Desha-Vrata, a vow to limit worldly activity for a fixed period "only."
Anartha-Danda Vrata. Taking a vow not to commit purposeless sin. It is of five kind :
(a).Apa-Dhyana, thinking ill of others.
(b).Papodesha, Preaching evil of others.
(c).Pramada-charya. Inconsiderate conduct, such as uselessly breaking the boughs of trees.
(d).Himsa-dan, preparing or supplying instruments of attack.
(e).Dushruti, Reading or listening to improper literature. The remaining four are the following Shiksha Vratas or disciplinary vows; so called because they are preparatory to the discipline of an ascetic's life:
Samayika :- Taking a vow to devote a fixed period every day, once, twice, or three times, at sunrise, sunset and noon to the contemplation of the self for spiritual advancement.
Proshadhpvasa. Taking a vow to fast on four days of the month the two Ashtamis and the two Chaturdashis.
Bhogopobhoga Parimana. Taking a vow every day to limit one's enjoyment of consumable and non-consumable things.
Atithi-Samvibhaga. Taking a vow to take one's food only after feeding ascetics or others, with a part of it.
The following eleven stage of spiritual progress have been laid down for a layman.
1. Darshana Pratima. A layman who entertains right belief, and follows the five main vows to a limited extent is called in this stage.
2. Vrata-Pratima. In this stage he observes the five main vows to a limited extent (anuvartas), without transgression and follows the seven supplementary vows.
3. Samayika Pratima. In this stage he practices faultless contemplation regularly, three times in the morning, at midday and in the evening, at least for about 48 minutes every time.
4.Proshadhpvasa Pratima. In this stage he observes a fast faultlessly. On the 8th and 14th days of the fortnight .
5.Sachitta Tyaga Pratima. In this stage he does not take animate water and vegetable, etc.
6.Ratri-Bhukta Tyaga Pratima. He does not take or give food or drink at night.
7.Brahmacharya Pratima. He gives up sexual intercourse even with his wife.
8.Arambha Tyaga Pratima. He give up all profession and all means of earning money and all wordly occupations.
9.Parigraha-Tyaga Pratima. He gives up all desire for objects of the world and abandons all property expert a very few limited number of clothes and utensils.
10.Anumati-Tyaga Pratima. He would not even offer advice on any worldly matter.
11.Uddishta-Tyaga Pratima. In this stage he would not accept food which is prepared particularly for him. He will only accept food which is respectfully offered by a house-holder at the time when he goes out for food. One following the discipline of this stage may be
(a) Kshullaka, who keeps a small sheet of cloth not sufficiently long to cover his whole body and a small loin-cloth (langoti) and dines in a dish, or
(b). Ailaka, who wear only a small loin-cloth (langoti) and dines off his hands.
They both carry a bowl of water for cleaning the body and peacock-feathers brush for harmlessly removing insects.
Every Jaina house-holder is ordinarily required to perform the following six daily duties.
1. Deva-Puja. Worship of the Arhats, the adorable.
2. Guru Bhakti. Devotion to the gurus or preceptor-saints.
3. Svadhyaya. Study of the scriptures.
4. Samyama. Control of the five senses and the mind. In practicing Samyama, it is necessary to renounce certain objects of enjoyments with the idea of self-control.
5. Tapa. Austerities such as meditating upon the nature of soul, every morning and evening, for a fixed time.
6. Dana or Charity. Giving of (a) food, (b) knowledge,(c) medicine, or (d)protection.
As soon as an Ailaka is able to subdue his passion, and regards himself as above passion and emotion, like an infant he discards that small langoti also, become a nirgrantha, a naked saint, without any possession, whatsoever, except the bowl for carrying water, for cleaning but not bathing the body and the peacock feathers brush for carefully removing insect. He may keep scriptures as well for daily.
A saint while observing the five great vows fully and without any transmigration, has to observe the following eight rules of Conduct also :-
1. Five kinds of caution, (Samiti).
(a). Irya Samiti Proper care in walking.
(b). Bhasha Samiti, proper care in speaking.
(c). Eshna Samiti proper care in eating.
(d). Adana-Nikshepa Samiti,Proper care in lifting and placing the bowl, etc.
(e). Utsarga Samiti, proper care while attending call of nature.
2. Three kinds of Restraini (Gupti), (a)of mind, (b) of word, (c)of body.
These eight rules of conduct taken together with the five vows make the thirteen rules of practical right conduct laid down for a saint.
In dealing with the six essential duties from the real point of view, the author has used the word Avashyaka in its etymological sense. Avasha, means independent; and Avashyaka Karma means independent action. Independent action signifies the idea that the soul of a saint meditation is not dependent upon any other thought activity except its own pure and real nature. This is only possible in the condition of self-absorption, when a saint is free from all foreign thought activities.
From the practical point of view, they may be briefly described as follows :-
1. Pratikramana; Repentence means the statement of the sins and transgression committed by a saint, during the performance of his daily routine; and making penance for them.
2.Pratyakayana. Renunciation means resolving to avoid particular thought-activities and action in future, which tend to disturb the performance of essential duties.
3.Stuti or Praising and
4.Vandana prostration to the worshipful saints. They are both aspects of Devotion which are practised with the object of getting rid of impure thought activities.
5.Samayika or Equanimity. In practicing Samayika a saint resorts to some undisturbed solitude, and calmly and cheerfully withdraw all his thought-activities, and meditates upon his own soul and its various attributes and modification.
6.Kayotsarga. Is the relinquishment of attachment to the body and all other objects associated with it.
Nirvana is the result brought about by the practice of self-absorption, which is the combination of Real Right belief, Real Right Knowledge and Real Right Conduct